Nauplia is a seaport town in the Peloponnese that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf. The town was the capital of the First Hellenic Republic, from the start of the Greek Revolution in 1821 until 1834. Nauplia is now the capital of the regional unit of Argolis.
Nauplia is situated on the Argolic Gulf in the northeast Peloponnese. Most of the old town is on a peninsula jutting into the gulf; this peninsula forms a naturally protected bay that is enhanced by the addition of man-made moles. Originally almost isolated by marshes, deliberate landfill projects, primarily since the 1970s, have nearly doubled the land area of the city.
The contemporary Greek name of the town is Nafplio. In modern English, the most frequently used forms are Nauplia and Navplion.